Regulations of CO2
Many risk assessment analysis’s have been made with the same conclusion: with the human factor included, the risk for being exposed to harmful levels of CO2 equaling IDLH (Immediate Danger to Life and Health) is not acceptable in our modern society of today. It is because of this danger that many countries like Germany, Holland, Belgium, England, Sweden and Denmark among others have set direct STEL ( Short Time Exposure Limits) values that are not allowed to be exceeded.
At the world’s largest fast food chain, it is mandatory with CO2 Safety Systems in all of their 33 000 restaurants. In Germany and Holland they have also enforced laws that mandate CO2 Safety Systems where there is a risk of exposure to harmful levels of CO2.
This as well as the EU COMMISSION DIRECTIVE 2006/15/EC, OSHA, the Australian Standard 5034-2005 and the recommendations from the ACGIH regarding both the Short Time Exposure Limit (STEL) as well the Time Weighted Average (TWA) limit of 5000 ppm all show that installing a CO2 Safety System that comply with these regulations is pure common sense and not doing it is nothing but irresponsible, towards both working staff as well as the customers.
Current U.S. National Standards, U.S. Codes, and non-Regulatory (CGA) guidelines impacting CO2 Gas Detection requirements are detailed below. Note that these are not necessarily what a Particular State or Municipality bases their code upon, or enforces:
International Fire Code: 2021 IFC – there are two different sections regulating CO2
2021 IFC – Section 5307 Compressed Gases Not Otherwise Regulated
5307.3 Insulated liquid Carbon Dioxide systems used in beverage dispensing applications
5307.3.2 Gas Detection System – Where ventilation is not provided in accordance with Section
5307.3.1, a gas detection system shall be provided in rooms or indoor areas and in below-grade outdoor locations with insulated Carbon Dioxide systems. Carbon Dioxide sensors shall be provided within 12 inches of the floor area where the gas is expected to accumulate… 5307.3.2.1. Activates an audible and visible supervisory alarm…of a …concentration of 5,000 ppm…
5307.3.2.2. Activates an audible and visible alarm…of a …concentration of 30,000 ppm…
Chapter 50 Hazardous Materials – General Provisions
5005.1.12 Emergency Isolation. Where gases or liquids having a hazard ranking of Health Class 3…an approved means of leak detection …shall be provided.
National Fire Protection Association: 2016 NFPA 55 Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids Code 2016 Edition
2016 NFPA 55 Chapter 13 Insulated Liquid Carbon Dioxide Systems
13.2 Uninsulated Carbon Dioxide Compressed Gas Systems. The storage, use, and handling of Carbon Dioxide in uninsulated systems shall be in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 13 and Chapters 1 through 7.
13.10 Carbon Dioxide Beverage Systems
13.10.1 General. Systems with more than 100 lb. of Carbon Dioxide used in beverage dispensing applications shall comply with13.10.2 through 13.10.4.
13.10.2 Equipment. The storage, use, and handling of Carbon Dioxide shall be in accordance with Chapters 1 through 7 and the requirements of this chapter, as applicable.
13.10.4 Required protection. Carbon Dioxide storage tanks, cylinders, piping, and equipment located indoors, in rooms, and other areas where a leak of carbon dioxide can collect shall be provided with…an emergency alarm system in accordance with 22.214.171.124.13.6.2 Rooms or areas where container systems are filled and used indoors or in enclosed outdoor locations shall be provided with a gas detection and alarm system that shall be capable of detecting and notifying…at, or in excess of…PEL…and STEL…More conservative set points shall be permitted to be used.
13.6.2 Rooms or areas where container systems are filled and used indoors or in enclosed outdoor locations shall be provided with a gas detection and alarm system that shall be capable of detecting and notifying…at, or in excess of…PEL…and STEL…More conservative set points shall be permitted to be used.
National Board Inspection Code for ASME pressure vessels: 2017 NBIC
Two Supplements of NBIC are applicable to Liquid Carbon Dioxide Storage Vessels
2017 NBIC Part 1 Supplement 3 for Installations
2017 NBIC Part 2 Supplement 12 for Inspections
Both NBIC Supplements specify “a continuous gas detection shall be provided in the room or area where container systems are filled and used, in areas where heavier than air gas can congregate and in below grade outdoor locations…CO2 sensors shall be provided within 12 inches of the floor in the area where the gas is most likely to accumulate, or leaks are most likely to occur”.
a) The threshold for activation of the low-level alarm shall not exceed a…concentration of 5,000 ppm Time Weighted Average over 8 hours.
b) The threshold for activation of the high-level alarm shall not exceed a…concentration of 30,000 ppm…
Occupational Safety and Health Administration: OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1
Toxic and Hazardous Substances, Limits for Air Contaminants: Carbon Dioxide PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit) – 5000 ppm Time Weighted Average over 8 hours, STEL – 30 000 ppm
Compressed Gas Association: CGA G-6.5 – 2013 Standard For Small Stationary Insulated Carbon Dioxide Supply Systems Fourth Edition (non-Regulatory)
3.6 Carbon Dioxide leak detection system
Indoor areas, rooms, or enclosed outdoor locations where small insulated carbon dioxide systems are filled and used shall be provided with a leak detection and alarm system. This system shall be capable of detecting and notifying…at, or in excess of,…PEL…and the…STEL…More conservative set points are permitted to be used.
Compressed Gas Association: CGA G-6.3 – 2013 Carbon Dioxide Cylinder Filling and Handling Procedures Fourth Edition (non-Regulatory)
3.5 Safety precautions
…Carbon Dioxide monitoring should be done before entering any area in which Carbon Dioxide gas can accumulate…
Article 7, Section 4 clearly states that the employer shall take the necessary measures to provide a warning device to alarm whenever an increased risk to safety and health occurs:
-“the employer shall take the measures necessary to provide the warning and other communication systems required to signal an increased risk to safety and health, to enable an appropriate response and to launch remedial actions, assistance, escape and rescue operations immediately if the need arises.”
The 2006/15/CE directive establish second list of indicative occupational exposure limit values in implementation of
Council Directive 98/24/EC. The directive clearly states the TWA limit at 5000 ppm in the appendix that must not be exceeded.